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Russian Empire

Russian telegraph apparatus of the Morse system, 1913

Russian Empire
1913 year
The original.
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Country:Russian Empire
Dating:1913 year
The original.

By the beginning of the twentieth century. wired, or, as it was then called, electric telegraph machines were no longer considered a miracle of technology and were widely distributed. On the state telegraph lines with large transmission volumes, the devices of the Swa system were used, equipped with a keyboard and printed letters on a paper tape. Such a telegraph apparatus is shown, in particular, in the film "The Turkish gambit". However, the Yuz devices were too expensive, heavy and cumbersome, consumed a lot of electricity, and therefore were suitable only for stationary use. Therefore, in the local telegraph communication, on the railways and in the army, by the beginning of the twentieth century, Morse telegraph devices were widely used, the design of which was formed in the XIX century.

For transmission, a telegraph key was used – a swinging metal bar on a hinge, equipped with a spring, a pair of contacts and a handle. When the handle was pressed, the contacts closed, and the current generated by the galvanic battery entered the communication line wire (the second conductor was the ground). By alternating long and short key presses, the corresponding electrical signals could be generated. An electromagnet was connected to the second end of the line, which served as the basis of the receiving device. When the current entered the winding of the electromagnet, the armature, which was rotating on the axis, was attracted to the core, and led to the rotation of the wheel, immersed in the edge of the black paint. When receiving a short pulse, a dot was printed on the paper tape, and a long one – a dash. Thus, with the help of Morse code, it was possible to transmit any alphanumeric information. There were quite a few designs of Morse machines, but all of them had the elements listed above. Morse machines were compact, relatively low power consumption, and cheap. Therefore, they were widely used on inactive railway lines and in local networks. Such a network, for example, connected the factories and stations of the railway, which belonged to the famous industrialist Maltsov (despite the fact that formally private telegraphs were prohibited in the Empire). In addition, due to its simplicity and cheapness, Morse machines were widely used in the troops for field communications at the level of divisional headquarters and above. It is interesting to note that the same keys and printing devices were used at the first radio stations – in the terminology of the time "spark telegraph stations", which, of course, simplified their use and training of troops. Morse machines were produced by small workshops, so there are a great many variants of their execution.

In this device, the transmitting key (on the right) and the receiving device are structurally combined, including an electromagnet with a printing and tape-drawing mechanisms. The reel with the tape is made separately-apparently, for compactness during transportation. To the right behind the key is a switching pad. The device has been used for a long time, but it has been restored and is in working condition. A great purchase for any museum, a great gift to the head of any of the communication institutions. Guarantee of authenticity.

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